HP - 10/10

Cultural Rebels Playlist

For all the Anti-Establishment rebels, fighting for revolution and a place in society. Suffragettes, tired factory workers, anti-war hippies, or the urban anti-police movement, this playlist holds the songs made by or for them, capturing their spirit. Aretha Franklin's demand for "Respect" for women, Bruce Springsteen's detailing of grueling "Factory" life, John Lennon's call for people to "Imagine" a more peaceful life, Canned Heat's hippie journey "Going Up The Country", Creedence Clearwater Revival's outcry of class struggle during vietnam "Fortunate Son", and N.W.A's exclaim "F*ck the Police", follows the movements and struggles of societal underdogs.

Unit 1 - Pope's Rebellion Aftermath


Pope's rebellion, or the pueblo revolt, was a great uprising against the Spanish inhabiting the New Mexico territory. 2000 Pueblo indians revolted, forcing the Spaniards back for 12 years. So what happened during those 12 years of Spanish absence? The leader of the revolt, Pope, assumed power. Pope, along with other officials of their new order, rode from town to town ordering the destruction of any Christian artifacts. He also destroyed other signs of Spanish culture, including their new vegetables and crops. The common people, after the attempted conversions, were told to cleanse themselves in a spiritual bathe. He also forced those who married under Catholic tradition to leave their wives. Pope's attempt to unify the local tribes failed, and the tribes returned to self governance. Tribe conflicts resumed, as a result of their common goal vanishing. Pope's leadership was short lived, as he was deposed only a year later.

The Spanish eventually returned, with a small militia and some priests. They found the pueblo indians, and demanded them to swear allegiance in exchange for safety. Remembering the bloodshed 12 years earlier, they eventually complied. While they were still subject to much harassment, it was relatively peaceful for a short time. Eventually, the pueblo would follow in Pope's footsteps, organizing revolts that would cause much violence. The pueblo presence in New Mexico diminished, with many fleeing North to join other tribes.



Unit 2 - Colonial Militia


Perhaps one of the most important factors deciding the success with our Revolution was our quick, well equipped militia. You would think a large power such as Britain would have a vastly superior military and curb the revolution easily, but as history proves, this was not the case. Even before ideas of the revolution circulated, a militia and armed force was necessary for providing safety against Indian attacks. The colonization of a new world fueled hunting as a source of food and trade goods, therefore much of the common population was armed. Living on the frontier and border, colonists were prepared and ready to defend against Indians on a moments notice, thus dawning the name "Minutemen". When the revolution broke out, colonial governments called upon these militias to come together and fight. Not all were full fledged patriots, many sought fame and wealth, and working their way up in an army was their opportunity. After long years of fighting, many soldiers felt cheated of their pay. With a large war debt, and new national problems arising, government simply couldn't afford to pay off the soldiers. This would lead to rebellions and uprisings against government, and would sway the hearts and minds of angry farmers and soldiers.


Unit 3 - Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights was a document outlining ten fundamental, unalienable rights of the people. It was written to reassure the skeptical Americans of a new federal government. Fearing a monarch-like system, these ten rights helped enshrine core beliefs of the people into the foundation of America. The first right, called Amendment I, states that congress shall make no law regarding religion, nor obstructing freedom of speech, freedom of the press, or freedom of the people to peacefully assemble and protest. These rights helped preserve personal liberties. The II amendment states that it is the right and responsibility of a state or people to bear arms. This right is a significant buffer against tyrannical government, seeing how a well regulated militia gained us our freedom from Britain. Amendment III states that quartering soldiers requires consent. Amendment IV protects the unlawful search and seizure of personal property without valid reasoning. Amendment V gives the right to be tried in front of a grand jury, and shall not be deprived of life liberty or the pursuit of happiness without undergoing the law process. Amendment VI provides rights for those tried, including a speedy trial in the state that the accused crime happened, and legal assistance in forming his defense. Amendment VII states that cases that involve a given amount of money will be handled by a civil court, or a federal court respectively. Amendment VIII states that excessive bail shall not be posted, nor excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishment. Amendment IX states that there are other rights besides those in the Bill of Rights that cannot be obstructed. Amendment X finally grants the powers that are not given to the federal government, to the states.


Unit 6 - Haymarket Square Riot

With labor unrest in the late 19th century, tensions were high. Following the outrage, many protests were held in which workers, organizers and new political leaders attended. One of the most well known protests occurred at Chicago's Haymarket Square. What was a normal protest turned into a riot after a unknown assailant detonated a bomb near police who were present, killing eight people. This incident outraged people on both sides, activists thinking that the violence would hurt their cause. Public and government outrage did diminish their cause, and despite no hard evidence as to who perpetrated the attack, eight labor leaders were arrested. This event changed the public perception of these labor movements, now easily labeled as violent or radical. Of the eight men arrested, only one was spared and given a life sentencehaymarket-riot-hero-H.jpeg.HaymarketRiot-Harpers.jpg

Unit 7 - Japanese Internment

Following longstanding racial discrimination in the U.S., the December 7th attack on Pearl Harbor killing over 2400 Americans sparked the internment of over 120,000 Japanese immigrants living in America. Fearing the Japanese population as an internal threat, recommendations from government officials pushed FDR to issue Executive Order 9066. This order rounded up Japanese families, mainly on the west coast, and sent them to holding camps run by the War Relocation Authority. While not all Japanese were interned, the years following internment would be filled with anti-Japanese sentiment and propaganda. Many families were separated during this time period, which lasted roughly 2-3 years. The camps were made up of makeshift buildings, dining rooms, and small cramped housing units. The primary purpose of these camps was to hold those interned until eventual relocation. Violence was uncommon, but riots did occur in many camps in which some Japanese immigrants were killed. While interned, the homes and possessions of the Japanese were left behind and often looted. A mass exodus back to their homes did not occur until two years later, when court and legal battles led to habeas corpus writs being granted to the Japanese Americans, allowing them to leave the camps and return home.