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https://open.spotify.com/artist/78ABRl2XqfueSOxr4qja6R?si=Qu0rZjDbTRO1PgsZ-sGDmQ

This playlist is contains various songs from WW!, WW2, the Cold War, and the Vietnam War from a variety of artists. It begins with songs from WW1, which were mainly created in a positive light and of which many attempted to bring hope. For example, the song "Keep the Home Fires Burning" was to bring hope to families who had sons, brothers, or fathers fighting in the war. However, some music carried a negative message about America's involvement in the war such as "I didn't Raise my Boy to be a Soldier", which was a pacifist song and popular among American women. During WW2, American citizens were extremely positive during this time, propaganda was popular and patriotism was high. The two songs I chose from this era included Don Reid's "Remember Pearl Harbor", which sought to encourage people to fight in the war as a way to remember the lives lost after the bombing and "White Cliffs of Dover" by Nat Burton. The playlist then transitions into songs from the cold war. David Bowie's forever known "Heroes" was inspired when he saw two people kissing by the Berlin Wall outside of his room window. Prince's "1999" incorporates the fear of nuclear war into the lyrics and living like it was the end of the world. During the Vietnam War, there were several protest and Americans fought relentlessly to free themselves from the war. Pete Seeger's "Bring them Home", and Rolling Stones "Gimme Shelter" are just a few of the many songs that were created during this period that showed the strong distaste of America's involvement in the war. The songs in this playlist reflect the mood of the era and of the war in each of the eras, ranging from strong hope, to violent aggression.


Unit 8:
Image result for william randolph hearst
Image result for william randolph hearst

William Randolf Hearst was and American businessman, politician, and newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications, and whose methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. After being given control of the San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father, he entered the publishing business. Hearst entered politics at the turn of the century, winning two terms to the US House of Representatives, but failing in hus bids to become US president and mayor of New York City. During the Great Depression he lost much of his holdings and fell out of touch with his blue collar audience. However, he still headed the largest news conglomerate in America at the time of his death. Hearst spent more than 8 million dollars of his family's money making the San Drancisco paper a success. The papers Hearst created catered to urban working people, many of whom were recent immigrants. His papers favored labor unions, progressive taxation, and municipal ownership of utilities. Favoring Irish and German readers in particular, the papers condemned British influence and spread fears about the 'yellow peril' of Asian immigration.
Unit 7:
Image result for homestead strike
Image result for homestead strike

The Homestead Strike, also known as the Homestead Steele Strike, Pinkerton Rebellion, or Homestead Massacre, was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. Falling behind the Ludlow Massacre and the Battle of Blaire Mountain, it was one of the most serious disputes in US labor history. The dispute occurred at the Homestead Steel Works in the Pittsburg area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania. The battle was between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and the Carnegie Steel Company. Management and labor had been locked in negotiations for several months when plant general manager Henry C. Frick announced wage cuts of nearly 20 percent. The plant was then closed on June 30. On July 6, the displaced workers opened fire on a barge loaded with 300 pinkerton agents who were being brought in as strike workers. The Homestead plant was reopened to non-union workers, but wages were cut beyond the earlier proposal and the work days were lengthened. The union continued the strike until November, when they capitulated. Many strikers were blacklisted, which prevented them from regaining employment as steelworkers elsewhere.

Unit 6:
Image result for ashcan school
Image result for ashcan school

The Ashcan School was an artistic movement in the early 20th century that is best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York, often in the city's poorer neighborhoods. The most famous artists working in this style included Robert Henri, George Luks, William Glackens, John Sloan, and Everett Shin, some whom had met under the renowned realists Thomas Anshutz at the Academy of the Fine Arts, and others who had met in newspaper offices of Philadelphia where they worked as illustrators. The movement has been seen as emblematic of the spirit of political rebellion of the period. A group of artists loosely formed a group they called "The Eight" or the Ashcan School because they could find art in the "ashcans" of dirty cities. the Ashcan artists disdained the academic pretensions of the established art world, while critics, who didn't want to see such vulgarity displayed in art, called the group "The Revolutionary Black Gang". the Eight held its first exhibition in 1908 and 1910. But the true impact of the Ashcan School didn't occur until 3 years with the Armory Show.
Image result for the middle passage
Image result for the middle passage
Image result for the middle passage
Image result for the middle passage

Over the course of three hundred years, over 54,000 voyages were made between the 16th and 19th, and at the height of the slave trade in the 18th century, and estimated 6 million Africans were forced to make the journey across the Atlantic ocean, the length stretching 4,000 miles and lasting fewer than 6 weeks, but longer if weather problems arose. The journey began when the ships would dock at western ports in Africa to load African's who'd been kidnapped by the thousands. The Middle Passage took slaves away from their homeland. They were all from different countries, different cultures, and spoke different languages. In fact many of them had never even seen the sea before, let alone been on ship, nor did they know where they were going or what was waiting for them. Men were considered dangerous, as they were younger, larger, stronger, and more likely to turn on their captors if given the opportunity, so they were shackled in pairs to eliminate that threat. People were shackled so close to each other that they couldn't reach a bucket to relieve themselves, so they lay in their own filth. A terrible smell was always present, the seasickness, the heat, and lack of air contributed to the smell as well as the spread of disease. Those who were thought too weak to survive the rest of the voyage were thrown overboard into the sea.

The Dolben Act of 1788 regulated the number of slaves according to the ship size, making 295 the maximum amount of slaves that could be put onto one ship. On a previous journey, a ship called the Brookes, had carried 609 slaves onto the single ship. The average losses were between 10% and 20% due to sickness, suicide, and even at the hands of the slave crew and captains. For every 100 slaves who reached the New World, another 40 would die in transit. Upon reaching the West Indies, the slaves were fed and cleaned in hopes of bringing a high price, those who could not be sold were simply left for dead. The Middle Passage, introduced between ten and twenty million Africans in the most unspeakable manner.