Greetings.
Unit Historian Points: 10/10
  • Answered Unit One: Discussion Question 1
  • Completed multiple vocab terms
  • Commented on Aidan McIntyre's page
  • Commented on Tyler Sand's Page

U1 Topic of Interest: Zenger Trial
Zenger Trial
Zenger Trial
John Peter Zenger was of German birth and moved to New York with his family in 1710 as part of a large group of German Palatines. During his youth, Zenger was a bound apprentice to William Bradford, New York's first printer, for approximately eight years; also, Zenger took printing work in Maryland but returned to New York permanently in 1722, and by 1725 Zenger had set up a commercial printer on Smith Street in Manhattan.

In 1733, Zenger published copies of newspapers in New York to voice his disagreement and concern with the actions newly appointed colonial governor, William Cosby. Cosby's actions included removing Chief Justice Lewis Morris and replacing him with James DeLancey, a member of the Royal Party. Continuing to publish articles criticizing the actions of Cosby, Cosby issued a proclamation denouncing the writings of Zenger and accused Zenger of libel.

John Peter Zenger spent several months in prison before facing trial for the accused crime of libel; however, during his several months of prison, both Andrew Hamilton and William Smith Senior agreed to represent Zenger in the upcoming trial. By this point, this incident became a cause célèbre, invoking controversy across the colonies. The initial jury was prefixed with supporters of Cosby, but the bias was undone by the work of Anna Zenger, wife of John Peter Zenger, and the jury was filled with the true peers of John Peter Zenger. After several rebuffs by Chief Justice DeLancey, Smith and Hamilton pleaded their case directly to the jury and after both sides, prosecution and defense, presented their rhetoric, the jury convened to discuss the verdict. The jury's verdict was "not guilty" and Zenger was cleared with all accusations of libel.

This momentous decision established the precedent that a statement, defamatory or not, is not libelous if proved, thus reinforcing the idea of freedom of press within the colonies. The case, verdict, and established precedent would provide the foundation of freedom of press, not its legal precedent, in the creation of the amendments later on.

Unit Two Historian Points: 10/10
  • Completed multiple vocab terms
  • Commented on Tyler Sand's Page
  • Commented on Aidan McIntyre's Page

U2 Topic of Interest: Battle of Yorktown (Siege of Yorktown)

While we briefly, in class, established the importance of Yorktown to the outcome of the American Revolution, I am curious about the events that transpired during the battle and prior to the battle.
News Header
News Header
The Battle of Yorktown, better known as the Siege of Yorktown due to siege like warfare that ensued, was primarily fought by George Washington of the American Continental Army and the French Army led by Comte de Rochambeau against Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. Washington and Rochambeau, with their combined force, emerged victorious at the Siege of Yorktown as Cornwallis surrendered Yorktown and his army on October 19, 1781. One must realize that the victory of Yorktown was only possible with the alliance between the United States and France, and the years prior to the Siege of Yorktown helped strengthen the alliance between the two nations.

On December 20, 1780, Benedict Arnold sailed from his position in New York with a force of 1,500 troops to Portsmouth, Virginia. In Virginia, Arnold, recently turncoat, raided Richmond from January 5-7 before initiating a tactful retreat back to Portsmouth. With the encouragement of both Washington and Rochambeau, Admiral Destouches stingily dispatched a fleet of three vessels to aid Marquis de Lafayette in a joint land-naval attack on Arnold's troops around early February. This plan proved ineffective and Destouches dispatched a force of eight vessels in March 1781, and fought against the British fleet of Marriot Arbuthnot at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay; however, this confrontation ended with the withdrawal of Destouches fleet and left the control of the bay's mouth with Arbuthnot. Major General William Phillips joined forces with Benedict Arnold on March 26, he promptly seized command of the forces. With his combined force, Phillips resumed raiding in Virginia, defeating the militia at Blandford, then burning the warehouses of tobacco at Petersburg on April 25. It seemed that Richmond was set to suffer the same fate, but Lafayette arrived and the British not wanting to engage in a skirmish, withdrew their forces to Petersburg on May 10. Ten days after Phillips withdrew his forces to Petersburg, Charles Cornwallis arrived with his force of 1,500 men after enduring heavy casualties at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse and immediately assumed command, as William Phillips died of a fever. Disregarding his orders to stay in the Carolinas, Cornwallis set forth to capture Virginia; also, Cornwallis's, with reinforcements from New York, force numbered 7,200 redcoats and wanted to push the forces of Lafayette, whose force numbered 3,000 men with the arrival of the Virginia militia. Lafayette responded to the advancements of the Cornwallis by retreating from Richmond, and linked his army with the army of Baron von Steuben and Anthony Wayne. Instead of actively pursuing Lafayette, Cornwallis sent raiders into central Virginia, the raiders attacked both supply depots and supply convoys, in hopes to cripple the opposition, before being recalled on June 20. Cornwallis then headed for Williamsburg with the forces of Lafayette, 4,500 strong, dogging his every step, and Cornwallis's superior, General Clinton, issued a confusing series of orders to Cornwallis. These orders dictated that Cornwallis move his forces to Portsmouth and then Yorktown; at Yorktown, Cornwallis was instructed to build fortifications for a deep water port. The French and American armies united at White Plains, north of New York City, on July 6, 1781. Rochambeau, although possessing greater experience than Washington, instantly deferred to the authority of Washington; apparently telling Washington he had come to serve, not command. Washington wanted to attack New York City, since the combined forces of the Americans and French outnumbered the British 3:1, but Rochambeau argued that an attack in conjunction with the forces of Admiral de Grasse would prove favorably. On August 14, Washington received a letter from Admiral de Grasse stating that he was in route to Virginia with a total force of 29 warships and 3,200 soldiers; although, Admiral de Grasse stated he could only remain there until October 14th. Washington decided to abandon his plans to take New York and began preparations to move the forces to Virginia.
external image 250px-W-RSimpleMap.gif
The march to Yorktown led by Rochambeau and Washington, known as the "celebrated march", began on August 19th and was undertaken by an approximate force of 4,000 French and 3,000 American soldiers; also, the march began in Newport, Rhode Island, with the rest of the force left behind to protect the Hudson Valley. To ensure complete secrecy of the final destination of the march, Washington commissioned several fake dispatches that reached General Clinton dictating that the Franco-American forces planned to attack New York, and led Clinton to believe that Cornwallis faced little opposition in Virginia. From the second and fourth of September, the forces marched through Maryland, where the American soldiers protested the lack of pay by threatening to stay in Maryland until they received their due pay in coinage, not the worthless Continental paper. General Rochambeau loaned Washington half of his supply of gold Spanish coins to appease the American troops; this action helped fortify the French and American relations and alliance. On September 5th, Washington learned of the arrival of de Grasse's fleet off the Virginia Capes; de Grasse then debarked his French troops, which joined the forces of Lafayette, and sent his empty vessels to transport the American troops. Washington arrived with his forces at Williamsburg on September 14th. Also, in August, Admiral Sir Thomas Graves commanded a fleet from New York to engage with de Grasse's fleet. Graves, grievously underestimating d Grasse's force, was defeated with ease by de Grasse in the Battle of Chesapeake on September 5th, and suffered a crippling blow, forcing retreat to New York.

Transports with artillery, siege tools, French infantry, and shock troops from Head of Elk, the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, arrived at Williamsburg on September 26th. With the reinforcements, this gave Washington control of approximately 8,000 Frenchmen, 3,000 militia, and 8,000 Continentals. In the dawn of September 26th, Washington led his forces out of Williamsburg and onward to surround Yorktown with the French taking position of the left and the Americans, taking the position of honor, positioned themselves on the right. Cornwallis had created a chain of several redoubts and batteries linked by earthworks, in addition with batteries that covered the narrows of the York River at Gloucester Point. Washington reconnoitered and analyzed the British defenses, concluding that the British could be bombarded to submission and the following day, September 29th, Washington moved his forces closer to Yorktown and British artillery and gunners caused some American casualties; also, fire between the American riflemen and Hessian Jägers ensued. Cornwallis responded to the advancements of Washington's forces by removing his forces from the outer defenses except for the Fusilier's redoubt on the west side of town and redoubts nine and ten in the east. He directed his forces to occupy the earthworks immediate vicinity of the town due to a letter he received from General Clinton, promising a relief of 5,000 men within a week and wished to tighten his lines. The French and Americans occupied the abandoned defenses establishing their own batteries, and began to lay out the positions for the artillery. September 30th, witnessed the first engagement of the siege with the French attacking the British Fusilier's redoubt; the skirmish occurred over two hours and the British successfully repulsed the French, with the French suffering heavy casualties. The quick progress of constructing the French and American artillery, caused British fire to increase on October 2nd in hopes to hamper progress and stall until reinforcements arrived. By October 5th, Washington considered it appropriate to construct the first parallel, as the placement of the outer artillery was complete; and that night, the sappers and miners worked, designating the routes of the trenches.

The night of October 6th, saw the construction of the first parallel during stormy weather that negated the light from the waning moon; the trench was to be 1,800 meters in length, running from the head of Yorktown to the York River. The French were to distract the British with a false attack , but a French deserter told the British of this plan and the artillery of the British turned on the French from the Fusiliers redoubts. By October 7th, the British observed the progress of the first parallel, reaching just out of musket-range, and over the next two days, the Franco-American forces completed gun placements and artillery placements. The placement of the artillery and guns were completed by October 9th and among the American artillery there were: three twenty-four pounders, three eighteen pounders, two eight-inch howitzers, and six mortars, totaling fourteen guns. By dusk, the bombardment had ensued with the first firing done by Washington himself; also, legend has it that Washington's shot destroyed a table in which British Officers were eating. The Franco-American artillery continued into the night, as to prevent repairs, and began to destroy the defenses of the British; due to the constant bombardment by the Franco-American forces, the British soldiers began to desert in large quantities due to low morale and psychological effects of the bombardment. Washington ordered a second parallel to be constructed on the night of October 11th; this parallel was 370 meters closer to the British lines, but could not be extended in the direction of the river because British redoubts nine and ten barred access. Cornwallis did not suspect the construction of the second parallel and continued to fire at the old line, and by the morning of October 12th, the Franco-American forces were in position in the second parallel.
Siege of Yorktown Map
Siege of Yorktown Map


By October 14th, the trenched were within 140 meters of redoubts nine and ten and Washington ordered all guns within range to bombard the redoubts to weaken them for a frontal assault that evening. The night of the 14th featured a lack of moonlight, because the moon was a new moon, that would help cover the movements of the forces of the Franco-American forces for a frontal assault, Washington knew of this. Also, Washington ordered that the no soldier shall load his musket till he reaches the fortifications, to reinforce the surprise and silence, so the advance was made with only "cold steel". The redoubts were held with relatively few men, but were heavily reinforced with rows of abatis surrounding the redoubts, along with ditches placed around the redoubts at 25 meters. Redoubt nine laid a quarter of a mile inland and was held by combined force of 120 men, both British and German forces; however, redoubt ten was situated near the river and held only 70 men to defend it. Washington's plan dictated that the French would launch a diversionary attack on the Fusiliers redoubt, and then a half hour later, the French would turn their focus on taking redoubt nine with the Americans assaulting redoubt ten. The assault of redoubt would be undertaken by 400 French infantrymen under the command of the German Lieutenant Colonel Wilhelm von Zweibrücken, while redoubt ten would be led by Washington's right hand, Alexander Hamilton, with a force of 400 light infantry soldiers. The plan was enacted into action with the announcement of gunfire at Fusiliers redoubt around 6:30 P.M. and with bayonets fixed, the Americans moved towards Redoubt ten; then, Hamilton sent Lieutenant Colonel John Laurens to cut around to the rear of the redoubt to prevent escape. The American forces reached the redoubt, chopping through the abatis with axes and charging toward the redoubt with their bayonets; the American forces climbed the parapet into the redoubt, forcing their way into the redoubt right into the heavy gunfire of the British. While the British laid down gunfire to halt the advancements of the Americans, the American forces overwhelmed the 70 British soldiers and the American troops captured the garrison, including the commander of the redoubt, Major Campbell. In the assault, the Americans suffered thirty-four casualties, nine of which were killed in action. The French also initiated their attack around the same time, but encountered difficulties because the abatis remained undamaged from the artillery bombardment; however, the forces of redoubt nine surrendered with little force. With the capture of both redoubt nine and ten, Washington was able to shell Yorktown from three directions and intensified artillery fire on the morning of October 16th. Cornwallis, after losing both redoubts, ordered a force of 350 men under the command of Colonel Robert Abercromby, to attack the Franco-American lines on the night of October 15. Cornwallis hoped to spike the majority of the Franco-American artillery for a brief reprieve from the constant bombardment, but Colonel Abercromby failed to deal any damage to the either the Franco-American forces or artillery.
British Surrender
British Surrender
With the increased artillery fire on Yorktown and the lack of promised reinforcements from General Clinton, Cornwallis declared the Siege of Yorktown hopeless and by the morning of October 17, a British drummer appeared by an officer waving the universal white handkerchief. The shelling of Yorktown ceased and the British officer was blindfolded; the officer was brought behind the Franco-American lines for negotiations. The official negotiations began on the morning of October 18th between Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dundas and Major Alexander Ross, representing the British, and Lieutenant Colonel Laurens, representing the Americans, and the Marquis de Noailles, representing the French, to negotiate the surrender of the British. On October 19th, 1781, the articles of capitulation were signed by Washington, Rochambeau, the Comte de Barras, Cornwallis, and Captain Thomas Symonds; the articles of capitulation declared that the British soldiers were prisoners of war, promised humane treatment of prisoners, and British officers were permitted to return to Britain. However, the traditional honors of war were denied to the British by Washington because the British denied the honors to the defeated American army at the Siege of Charleston. The forces of Cornwallis, British and German, were forced to march with the flags furled, muskets shouldered, while the band was forced to play "a British or German march". It is also believed that the British band played "The World Turn'd Upside Down", however, this is false as this detail was added a century later. With the victory of Yorktown, the Franco-American forces captured 8,000 prisoners, 214 artillery pieces, thousands of arms, and 24 transport vessels. The Article Ten controversy was created when Washington refused to accept the Tenth Article of the Yorktown Articles of Capitulation, which granted immunity to American Loyalist, and Cornwallis failed to press the matter. This created an immediate and vociferous outcry, as Americans on both sides of the Atlantic proclaimed their sense of betrayal.

Now, if the above was really boring and just honestly a waste of time, I apologize; however, while it may never actually be a subject you will come across on a test, I hope it was sort of a brief, but informative summary of the events that transpired before and during the Siege of Yorktown. Also if would like a somewhat less historically accurate version of the information presented in verbal form,[Honestly, I would not rely too much on this, but rather enjoy the creativity of it] then I recommend you watch the video below. Thanks
P.S. Apparently the song is labeled as "Parental Advisory: Explicit Content" so yeah... but isn't history itself deserving of a Parental Advisory label?
P.S.S wow a second post script, but anyways, here is a link to my sources (if you are interested): Sources
[[media type=youtube key=WQt1RRW_xv0 width=560 height=315 width="560" height="315"]]

Wow Kai! Showing off much? The Battle/Siege of Yorktown is super interesting and I love how you included Hamilton-the play-in there. This is so detailed; I only wonder if the prisoners captured during the battle were released after the surrender, as surrender usually meant one side giving up their weapons and going back to whence they came. Did you read anything about this? Truly great Kai, Keep up the nice work. -Tyler Sand P.3

Aww... Thanks Tyler. And to answer your curiosity about the soldiers, they were deemed prisoners of war and stayed in American imprisonment camps until the Paris Peace Treaty was signed [A radical move at the current time era]. Also I would advise not using fluorescent green text because it is not aesthetically pleasing, but thanks for your great response. - Kai Bowne [Period Three]

Very interesting and detailed summary of the Siege of Yorktown. It was truly an important revolutionary battle. What inspired your curiosity about this event? I love the Hamilton soundtrack; that was a very surprising addition. The pictures were definitely helpful to understanding the passage. What do you think would have happened in the war if the French hadn't come to help the Americans? Maybe it would have ended entirely differently. Anyway, nice job. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

To be honest, I was inspired to further research this battle by listening to the Hamilton song "Yorktown (The World Turn Upside Down)" and I am glad that the pictures helped. If France was not in an alliance with the Americans, I believe that America would have lacked the sufficient manpower and resources to win the Siege of Yorktown and more importantly, the war. Thanks for your great response! - Kai Bowne [Period Three]

Unit Three Historian Points: 10/10
  • Completed multiple vocab terms
  • Commented on Aidan McIntyre's Page
  • Commented on Tyler Sand's Page

U3 Topic of Interest: Charter of The First Bank of The United States
First Bank of The United States
First Bank of The United States

Throughout this Unit, we, as a class, have analyzed the aftermath of the Revolutionary War in all aspects possible. More specifically, I am interested in the economic consequences of the Revolutionary War, i.e. the massive war debt (international and domestic), which have led to further inquiry about the Charter of The First Bank of The United States.

The Bank of the United States was championed and proposed to Congress by Alexander Hamilton. Young Hamilton, First Secretary of the Treasury, proposed the charter for The First Bank of The United States, a radical plan, that in basic would accomplish four goals: have the Federal Government assume the Revolutionary War debt of the several states, pay off the war debts, raise money for the new government, establish a national bank, and create a common currency. This plan was part of a three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power, along with a federal mint and excise taxes, which Hamilton deemed necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit and to improve the handling of the financial business of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution.

Before the first session of the First Congress in 1790, Hamilton proposed initial funding for the First Bank of the United States through the sales of $10 million in stock of which the United States government would purchase the first $2 million in shares. The remaining $8 million would be available to the public and foreign investors; however, one-quarter of the payment had to be in gold or silver. By demanding these conditions, the bank might only posses 500,000 technically, but would be able to make loans up to it capitalized 10 million limit. The bank, unlike the Bank of England, primary function would be to issue credit to government and private interests and involved on the behalf of the federal government. Although the bank needed additional funding to satisfy its future and present governmental accounts, so Hamilton proposed that the federal government levy a heavier tax on imported spirits and an excise tax on domestically distilled liquors, as he had a year earlier, to generate revenue; however, this tax resulted in the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

Those who opposed the creation of the bank and Hamilton, stated that the creation of such a bank was unconstitutional in both spirit and practice, both Jefferson and Randolph opposed the creation of the bank and vehemently fought Hamilton on this matter. They argued with President Washington to deny Hamilton and his plan Presidential approval; however, Washington, hesitant at first, signed the "bank bill" into law of February 25, 1791 and Congress passed the charter for The First Bank of the United States for a term of twenty years.

Kai, as per usual you have done a great job! I find it interesting that a National Bank was never mentioned in the Constitution, at least to my knowledge. Do you know why this is? You'll have to forgive me for my lack of knowledge on this topic but is the National Bank still active today? As far as I know it isn't but again this may just be my lack of knowledge.
-Tyler Sand P.3

Kai, very interesting topic. The National Bank was definitely a point of contention between our Founding Fathers and greatly shaped the United States. What do you think would have happened to the United States if the National Bank was not created and the nation instead went bankrupt? I think it's very interesting to think how one event could have changed the entire course of a nation's history. Good job. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

Unit Four Historian Points: ?/10

U4 Topic of Interest: Free Masons and Anti-Masons (Morgan Affair of 1826)

Image result for masons
Image result for masons
The above symbol represents the Free Mason Organization whom trace their origins to the local guilds of stonemasons in the end of the fourteenth century. The basic unit of organization in the Free Mason Organization is the "Lodge" and the earliest known existence of a Lodge in North America can be found in Pennsylvania and were founded around the early 1700s. Members of the Free Mason Organization were male and women were not allowed; also, many early historical figures of America belonged to the Free Mason group. The Free Masons were criticized by religious groups, political groups, and most importantly conspiracy theorist. Critics believed that the Free Masons dominated the politics and social scene of America, all behind the veil of a shadow - of course - and the Lodges' of the United States were conspiring with the Lodges' of Europe to control the world.

William Morgan (anti-Mason).jpg
William Morgan (anti-Mason).jpg
The Morgan Affair of 1826 would see a exponential rise of Anti-Mason supporters in the United States and give way to the term "Anti-Masonry", The Morgan Affair saw William Morgan, a Master Mason in Canada, disappear and presumed murdered in 1826. William Morgan claimed to be a Master Mason in Canada and when he moved to Batavia, New York, William tried to gain membership in a local Lodge but was denied access. This denial and questioning of his Masonic past angered Morgan which prompted him to write and exposé titled Illustrations of Masonry. The exposé sought to expose the practices and secrets of Free Masons. David Cade Miller was a local newspaper publisher that paid a sizeable advance to Morgan for his exposé. On September 11, 1826 Morgan was arrested for nonpayment on a loan and allegedly for stealing a shirt and tie. Morgan was than held in debtor's prison until David Cade Miller paid the release bond for Morgan. Morgan and Miller than took a carriage to Fort Niagara which would arrive the next day. The following day Morgan was forcibly kidnapped and taken into a boat to the middle of the Niagara River and presumably thrown overboard and drowned, since he was never seen again. The act was believed to be carried out by the Masons in response for Morgan's exposé; in addition, the public outcry at this incidence was enormous especially since Miller still published Morgan's exposé. The circumstances of Morgan's disappearance and minimal punishment of Morgan's kidnappers caused public outcry, also Miller continued to publish Morgan's exposé. Morgan soon became a martyr for freedom of press and freedom of speech and initiated a rise of Anti-Masonry and denunciation of the Masons. The public outcry against the Masons would lead to the creation of a Anti-Masonry Political Party that would field presidential candidates in the election of 1832 against the Jacksonian Democrats.
Unit Five Historian Points:

  • Completed multiple vocab terms

U5 Topic of Interest: Dred Scott vs Sandford Supreme Court Case
Image result for dred scott
Image result for dred scott
Over the history of the United States Supreme Court cases have established or abolished legal precedents. The "Dred Scott Case" can be considered as a pivotal Supreme Court case and is a vital decision in American history and ergo also to our class.

The Supreme Court case: Dred Scott vs Sandford or also known simply as the Dred Scott case of 1857, ruled that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into[the US] and sold as slaves", whether free or enslaved, was denied the right of American citizenship and therefore had no standing to sue in a federal court. Also, the case established that the Federal Government had no power to regulate slavery in federal territories obtained after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott attempted to sue for his freedom after his masters transported him to free state and territories, but the Supreme Court rule 7-2 against Scott and denied his attempt for freedom. This was the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress unconstitutional.

This case did not solve the issue of slavery as Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wished and spurred a wave of vehement anti-slavery protest from the North. Also, in modern time the ruling regarding slavery is seen as a dictum rather than a binding precedent and the case was functionally superseded by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The case is now seen unanimously by scholars and historians as the greatest self-inflicted wound and the Supreme Court's erroneous decision.

Unit Six Historian Points:
U6 Topic of Interest: Booker T. Washington
Booker T Washington retouched flattened-crop.jpg
Booker T Washington retouched flattened-crop.jpg

We often focus on the political nature of American History and often forget the true initiators of revolutions, reforms, and social progress: academics. In American History, there have been key writers, orators, or artist of each generation that are vital to advancing social progress. We had both Jefferson, Hamilton, Jay, and Madison who helped form the governing body of the newly birthed nation of Democracy and Freedom: The United States of America. After the Civil War and during the Post-Reconstruction Era, blacks, while free, were still oppressed, discriminated, and importantly hunted by fanatics. Booker Taliaferro Washington was one such philanthropist and humanist leader and was the dominant leader of the black community between 1890-1915.

Born in 1856 in Virginia, Booker was born into the "peculiar institution" and experienced the Civil War as a young boy living in West Virginia after the Emancipation. Later, Booker pursued academics and worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and attended college at Wayland Seminary. By age 25, Booker became the leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama and during the late 19th century Booker actively sought to end the disenfranchisement of blacks.

During the Post-Reconstruction Era, disenfranchisement and Jim Crow laws still kept the black population under oppression by limiting educational, economic, social, or political opportunities. As lynchings [of blacks]in Alabama reached its peak by 1895, Booker gained notoriety for his "Atlanta compromise" speech which dictated that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while blacks would receive basic education and be given due process in law, also blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice in the South. However, Booker advocated for civil rights of blacks and sought to achieve this by educating the black population and helping them to become successful entrepreneurs rather than directly combating the Jim Crow laws and the disenfranchisement of black voters. Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, white philanthropist, church leaders, and white politicians with the goal of establishing the community's economic strength and an important focus on self-help and schooling.

Booker polar opposite, W.E.B. Du Bois favored a more militant approach to achieving civil rights for the black population and in 1909 created the NCAAP with the sole purpose of political change. Booker, contrary to his view, secretly help fund the NCAAP but opposed the views held by Du Bois and the NCAAP tried, with limited success, to challenge Washington for political leadership within the black community. Booker Taliaferro Washington helped end the disenfranchisement of the black community and empowered the community to seek civil justice and equality. Before his death in 1915, Booker served as an advisor to several Presidents, leader of the black community, and a vital figure in American History.
Good review of Booker T... among some African Americans, he is controversial but I think he contributed a lot to the discussion during the Prog Era. -SW

Unit Seven Historian Points:
Unit Seven Topic of Interest: Korematsu Versus United States
"Yesterday, December seventh, 1941, a date which will live in infamy..." was spoken by the late President Franklin Roosevelt in reference to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was the pinnacle act that launched America into the brutal conflict known as World War II and would inspire great fear among the WASP Americans, similar to 9/11, that lead to the eventual internment of an entire racial group of America. After the "day of infamy" act, the United States government quickly legalized the rounding and forced coercion of Japanese-Americans into camps. However, the validy of this action was challenged in the famous Supreme Court Case "Korematsu Versus United States".
The legalization of the internment of Japanese-Americans was created by the Presidential Executive Order 9066 and congressional status. The military was given the authority to displace citizens of Japanese Ancestry from areas designated as critical to national defense and vulnerable to espionage from the Japanese Empire.
The Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 of the U.S. Army dictated that the citizens of Japanese ancestry report to assembly centers if they lived in the designated area "Military Area No. 1"; however, Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu remained in San Leandro, California regardless of the Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 of the U.S. Army.
Korematsu was arrested in the following weeks and during his time held in jail in San Francisco, the ACLU approached Korematsu in an offer to use his case to fight the legality of Japanese internment. Besig, director of the ACLU in Northern California, posted the $5,000 dollar bail for Korematsu and attempted to leave with Korematsu, but were halted by the Military Police and taken to Presidio, Korematsu was tried and convicted in federal court on September 8, 1942 for the violation of Public Law No. 503. This law criminalized the violation of military issued orders under the Executive Order 9066 nad was relocated to the Utah War Relocation Center in Topaz, Utah. Korematsu appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for his case, which granted him review on March 27, 1943, however they upheld the original verdict on January 7, 1944. Korematsu than appealed his case to the United States Supreme Court that granted review on March 27, 1944. Korematsu's case was decided on December 18, 1944, in a 6-3 decision authorized by Justice Hugo Black. The Court upheld the original judgement however consititutionally suspect and justified its decision because of the "emergency and peril" of the context.



Image result for fred korematsu
Image result for fred korematsu
To this current day, the ruling of Korematsu V. United States has not still been explicitly overturned and four decades after the initial ruling, new evidence was brought into the light that challenged the necessity of interning Japanese. This evidence was previously withheld from the courts by U.S. government during World War II and further evidence proves that the prosecuting council during the Supreme Court Case falsified military reports and/or purposely withheld evidence that could have significantly changed the ruling.
Unit Eight Historian Points:
Unit Eight Topic of Interest: Guernica/Spanish Civil War

Image result for what war is guernica about
Image result for what war is guernica about




"Guernica" is an extemely famous painting by an extremely famous painter: Pablo Picasso. Picasso painted Guernica in June 1937, at his home on Rue des Grands Augustins, in Paris. The painting, which uses a palette of gray, black, and white, is viewed by many art historians as one of the most important and powerful anti-war paintings created. Picasso created the painting as a response to the bombing of Guernica, a Basque Country Village in northern spain, by Nazi germany and Fascist Italian bombers at the request of Spanish Nationalist during the Spanish Civil War.

The Spanish Civil War occurred from 1936 to 1939 and featured the Republicans, loyal to the democratic, left-leaning Spanish Republic, in an alliance with the Anarchist, fought against the Nationalist led by General Francisco Franco. In historical context, the Spanish Civil War has been seen as a war between Democracy versus fascism, due to the political climate and timing surronding it; however, more accurately, it can be described as a war of revolutionaries against counter-revolutionaries similar to the Finnish Civil War and Russian Civil War. The country of Spain was split in half and the Nationalist were supported by the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy while the Republicans were supported by the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Countries such as the United States, the United Kingdoms, and France continued to recognized the Republican government but followed an official policy, strictly, of non-intervention. The Nationalist won in early 1939, and Franco ruled all of Spain until his death in November 1975.

APUSH Playlist: 20th & 21st Century Social Movements

The 20th Century is the most tumultous, as of now, of American history marked by a spectrum of radical changes that continues to impact American society in the 21st Century. The Playlist above contains fifteen songs, exclude "We Didn't Start The Fire, by Bil Joel, which reflects several key social movements of the 20th century and continue far into the 21st century. The movements I have focused on are anti-war protest, nuclear age, civil rights, black empowerment, and women's rights. The songs vary in style and genre but the unifying aspect of each song lies within the importance of the lyrics and the ideals it preached to the listener, whether thru facetious techniques or directly thru the lyrics. Noticeable songs include "Blowin' In The Wind" by Dylan; "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy; and " The Pill" by Lynn. These three songs capture the vital essence of the social movements which originated in the 20th century but continue essential social movements in the 21st century.