Hope to learn with all of you this year and have fun with it!

Unit 1 Historian Points:
  • Answered the Unit question.
  • Commented on a fellow classmates Wiki Page.

Unit 1: Interesting Topic-

King Phillip's War (Pequot War)!

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The King Philip’s War (1675-1676) sometimes called the First Indian War, marked the last major effort by the Native Americans of southern New England to drive out the English settlers. There were many tensions happening, the collapse of trade partnerships and aggressive expansion of colonist territories, Pokunoket chief Metacom — a.k.a. King Philip — led a bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes.

The Plymouth colony and the local Wampanoag Indians began to deteriorate when the rapidly expanding settlement forced land sales on the tribe.
Christian Native American who had been acting as an informer to the English was murdered, and three Wampanoag were tried and executed for the crime. King Philip responded by ordering the attack on Swansee, which set off a series of Wampanoag raids in which several settlements were destroyed and colonists massacred. The colonists retaliated by destroying a number of Indian villages. The destruction of a Narragansett village by the English brought the Narragansett into the conflict on the side of King Philip, and within a few months several other tribes and all the New England colonies were involved.

The war’s proximate cause was Plymouth Colony’s execution in June 1675 of three of Philip’s warriors. They had been tried and found guilty of murdering John Sassamon, a Harvard-educated “praying Indian” convert to Puritanism who had served as an interpreter and advisor to Philip, but whom Philip had accused of spying for the colonists. His murder ignited tensions between Indians and whites that had been smoldering for 55 years over competing land claims. The militia had overrun the fort and begun burning the homes and food supplies of the Indian defenders. Many of them women, children, and the elderly, were killed or burned alive.

The fighting would last for fourteen months and it destroyed twelve frontier towns, ending shortly after when Metacom was captured and beheaded. Some of his supporters escaped to Canada, while others who surrendered were sold into slavery. It's considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of European settlement in North America in proportion to the population.

When King Phillip's was assassinated, the English drew and quartered Philip’s body and publicly displayed his head on a stake in Plymouth. King Philip’s War, which was extremely costly to the colonists of southern New England, ended the Native American presence in the region and inaugurated a period of unimpeded colonial expansion.

Unite 6:

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Andrew Jackson was president only from 1829 to 1837, his influence on American politics was pervasive both before and after his time in office. The years from about 1824 to 1840 have been called the “Age of Jacksonian Democracy” and the “Era of the Common Man.” As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union, as he served as the seventh president of United States of America.

The Republican cartoon shows Johnson knocking Blacks of the Freedmen’s Bureau by his veto. Andrew Johnson would use his veto power to block these laws. Johnson was now openly defying Congress. Congress then believed Johnson was working against Reconstruction and overrode his veto. The Radical Republicans that controlled Congress did not approve of Johnson’s lack of support for African Americans’ rights. The Congress responded by; Expansion of Freedmen’s Bureau to include punishing state officials who fail to extend civil rights to African Americans. And the Civil Rights Act of 1866 – Ending of Black Codes by creating a federal guarantee of civil rights to African Americans.

Congress did something unprecedented. With the required 2/3rds majority, it passed major legislation over a President’s veto. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 then became law. Congress begins its Reconstruction Plan, but first they had to take care of something. President Johnson is impeached & the 14th Amendment passed (Citizenship).

Unite 7: Nice job on this...the red scare was definitely tied to increased immigration.

Immigration Restrictions:

Immigration Act of 1921: established a three-percent quota system based on the number of foreign-born persons per nationality already living in America at the time of the 1910 census.

In 1924, Congress further restricted immigration with passage of the Johnson-Reed Act, also known as the

Immigration Act of 1924: This act established the 1890 census as the new quota baseline.

Nativism was a problem, although America was founded by immigrants seeking a better life, most Americans in the early twentieth century believed that only white, protestant, northern and western Europeans should be allowed into the country, and that these were the "desirable" immigrants. "Undesirable" immigrants included southern and eastern Europeans, Asians, Jews, and Catholics.
  • Immigrants blamed for society's problems and "lack of morals",
  • Fear of corrosion of american way of life,
  • Thought to pose significant health risks to Americans.

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The Red Scare of the 1920's caused deep social divisions across the country as neighbor turned upon neighbor to try to locate the infamous "radicals," who people believed would begin a revolution. New and older immigrants were greatly feared; the organized labor and progressive movements were slowed; more than ever the idea of the "original American" was present in daily life.

"[The] Red Scare [was] a nation-wide anti-radical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution... was imminent - a revolution that would change Church, home marriage, civility, and the American way of life."

--historian L.B. Murray

"Red Raids" (1919-1920):

After many widespread bombings, Palmer, appointed by Wilson to be Attorney General in 1919, ordered the US Justice Department to begin the Palmer "Red Raids":
- "reds" = people suspected/arrested; named after the Russian communist flag.
- raids were supposed to locate and deport all radicals from the country before they could do any harm; they expected to find evidence of a mass conspiracy, but in reality they found very little supporting their theory, and only a few weapons.
- executed by his chief investigating officer, Edgar Hoover.
- took place across thirty eastern cities; six to ten thousand people were arrested on the basis of being potential radicals.
- arrest warrants were not issued until after those suspected were already held in jail.
- "due process of the law" was violated in almost all respects during this process.
- convictions often based on thoughts and ideals as opposed to actions.
- Gaspare Cannone - refused to sign a sheet proclaiming he was an anarchist; somebody forged his signature and he was deported anyway.
- Palmer worked with officials from the Bureau of Immigration and used the 1918 Deportation Act to increase the number of people deported.
- 1918 Deportation Act authorized deportation of:
1) anarchists and those opposing organized gov
2) those wanting to overthrow the gov by force
3) members of any groups which supported or taught these views
- Assistant Secretary of Labor, Louis F. Post, was one of the few at first who stood up to Palmer; he overruled numerous deportations he viewed to be unjust.
- Controversy over Palmer's actions was widespread and very present in Congress. As time passed and no Mayday revolution was visibly occurred, people began to dismiss Palmer's credibility, and the scare calmed.

Songs during Slavery & Afterwards:

Songs during slavery and afterwards!

What was I going for and how I put the list together:

I wanted to let everyone see how African Americans were able to have their own tunes. They were able to sing from their religious tunes, to blues, to ring shouts, to camp meeting songs, to performing, to becoming the next big sensation. To express with music how they felt with everything that occurred in their lives as slaves and out of slavery. They wanted everyone to know how much they appreciated their freedom and kept wanting to have their voices be heard. These tunes are important because it was a way the slaves could do their own style of music and it helped them get through the hardships. Everyday they would wake up when they’re was a bit of light and wouldn’t stop until there was no more light of day to see, which was more than 12 hours of working hours. They sang spiritual, soul and Gospel songs as a way to voice their feelings about race relations..

The black churches were also independent, and the Gospel music that celebrated their resistance, solidarity and joy, also had the flattened notes of the Blues scale and the ‘call and response’ vocals typical of the Blues. I put this list by when the slaves were in complete slavery, to when they were finally able to perform in front of a white audience, to be aware of how hard it was for African Americans to have the same rights and privileges as white’s do. Some religious songs related to the abolition of slavery, such as "Amazing Grace," were also used as written or modified for the movement.(#’s 1, 4, 6) Then Civil rights and wanting freedom (#’s 2, 3). Then it went to Ring shouts(#5), then Camp meeting songs (#7), then minstrel show (#’s 8, 9), then non-minstrel show (#10), then emancipation era (#11), then first musical comedy made by African American (#12), then when blackface came to an end (#13), then Harlem renaissance period (#14), and last the African Americans collaborating with white composers (#15).