My playlist is comprised of anti-war songs written between 1969 and 2014, addressing various wars from the Civil War to the Iraq War. All of the songs in this playlist are rock and metal songs. These genres are often seen as rebellious, which fits the general attitude of anti-war protests. Some of these songs are also relatively chaotic, which reflects the atmosphere in war zones. "Zombie," "Under Pressure," "War Pigs," and "Crazy Train" are all commentaries on American actions in wartime, specifically the Cold War, as viewed by artists from England and Ireland. Songs like this show how American foreign policy had global impact, as policy actions were being criticized by artists from nations who were not directly involved. "Unknown Soldier," "Disposable Heroes," and "Wrong Side of Heaven" all address how poorly soldiers are treated by the U.S. Government following their military service. "Swan Swan H" takes a Southern viewpoint of the aftermath of the Civil War to describe how human loss leads to widespread misery. "One" describes the perspective of a soldier who lost his limbs in World War I. John Lennon's "Imagine" advocates for a world devoid of the barriers that lead to war and conflict. "Fortunate Son," a Vietnam War protest song, and "B.Y.O.B.," an Iraq War protest song, question why rich people never seem to face the burdens of war. "Holiday" and "Audience of One" are unique since they were written during the time period of the song they address. These songs question the validity of the Iraq War and condemn the policy actions taken by George W. Bush. These songs represent a common view on the policies and atrocities of war, and show how American events influenced global culture.

Unit 1 Historian Points: 10/10

Unit 1 Interesting Topics:
Baptista Boazio's Map of Sir Francis Drake's Raid on St. Augustine (published in 1589) (8879100326).jpg
Baptista Boazio's Map of Sir Francis Drake's Raid on St. Augustine (published in 1589) (8879100326).jpg

Sir Francis Drake's Raid on St. Augustine

Sir Francis Drake was an English naval captain and privateer during the latter half of the 16th century. From 1577 to 1580, Drake led the first English and second ever circumnavigation of the Earth. In 1585, Drake was sent by Queen Elizabeth I during the Anglo-Spanish War to lead a series of raids against Spanish cities in North and South America, including Santiago, Cartagena, Santo Domingo, and St. Augustine. On his way to give supplies to the Roanoke colony, Drake sailed North from Cartagena and passed the Florida coast. In May 1586, Drake spotted and decided to raid St. Augustine, Spain's northernmost New World settlement and the oldest permanent New World settlement.

The Spanish governor had been previously alerted to Drake's presence and decided to pull his forces from the fort into the city of St. Augustine. When Drake's men arrived in St. Augustine, they were ambushed by Spanish soldiers. Drake and Christopher Carleill, another naval commander, charged the Spanish and forced them to retreat. The English then garrisoned and destroy St. Augustine.

Two days after landing, Drake and his men left St. Augustine and sailed north towards Roanoke. Drake found the entire population stationed on Roanoke Island, and due to the heinous conditions of Virginia, they decided to sail back with Drake to England.

Drake's raids were key strategic events in the Anglo-Spanish War, bolstering Spanish anti-protestant sentiments and causing King Phillip II's invasion of England.

KB: The information you present about Sir Francis Drake gives a profound insight into the friction between Spain and Britain and their Anglo-Spanish war; also, the detailed summary of the raid on St. Augustine is accomplished in a concise and aphoristic manner. I, personally, knew very little of the exploits of Francis Drake and his involvement in the Anglo-Spanish War and his contribution to Britain. Would you posit the statement that "Sir Francis Drake's raid on St. Augustine and involvement in the Anglo-Spanish War contributed heavily to Britain's efforts in the first Anglo-Spanish War" and if so, how would you defend this assertion? Also who do you believe was the most victorious in the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War?

Unit 2 Historian Points: 10/10

Unit 2 Interesting Topic:

Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg
Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg

Battle of Saratoga

The Battle of Saratoga was a battle that took place during the American Revolutionary War in 1777. The battle is generally noted as a major turning point in the war. The Battle of Saratoga was held in Stillwater, New York. Major players in the battle included Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold on the American side and General John Burgoyne on the British side. The battle resulted in a failed campaign by Burgoyne and his eventually retreat to England. The American victory led King Louis XVI of France to formally enter into negotiations with the Americans, which eventually ended in the Franco-American Alliance. This alliance would prove to be extremely crucial in the remainder of the war, eventually leading to the American victory at Yorktown in 1781.

The topic you chose is very interesting and informative; also, this battle seems to be a major turning point in the American Revolutionary War as it enabled an alliance with France. If Britain won this battle, how do you think this would affect the possibility of an alliance between America and France? Excellent job. - Kai Bowne [Period Three]

Unit 3 Historian Points: 10/10

Unit 3 Interesting Topic:
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Jay's Treaty

Jay's Treaty was drafted in order to settle unresolved issues between the United States and Great Britain. Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with Britain at the onset of the French Revolution. Jay worked closely with Alexander Hamilton in order to stabilize relations between the two nations and increase trade. Jay had no real leverage to force the British to comply with U.S. demands, and as such, the treaty granted the British more rights than the Americans. The major issues addressed were blockades of American exports, British occupation of United States territory, and British impressment of American sailors. The agreement was signed in November of 1794.

In the grand scheme of things [vague], do you believe that the Treaty was necessary or could have been entirely voided and America could have suffered at the hands of the British for the time being: and striking back, at Britain, when strong enough? Also why did Washington choose both Jay and Hamilton to negotiate as ambassadors to the British, since there were more renowned negotiators at the time? Great Job! - Kai Bowne [Period Three]

Unit 4 Interesting Topic:
Henry Clay-headshot.jpg
Henry Clay-headshot.jpg

Henry Clay's Multiple Failed Presidential Runs

In 1824, Henry Clay came in fourth after only winning Ohio, Missouri, and his home state of Kentucky. Clay lost to John Quincy Adams, runner-up Andrew Jackson, and the invalid William Crawford, who had previously suffered a major stroke and was left unable to hold any public office, yet still stayed in the presidential race. Humiliated, Clay offered his support to Adams, who made him Secretary of State, leading Jackson to coin the term "Corrupt Bargain."

In 1832, Clay lost against the incumbent Andrew Jackson. Jackson was able to garner support from the people due to his veto of the Second National Bank. Clay won 37.4% of the popular vote and the electoral votes from 6 states.

In 1840, Clay supported the Whig party nominee, William Henry Harrison, after he had failed to receive the party's support. After Harrison's death, John Tyler, a close personal friend of Clay's, took office and began to enact policies consistent with Clay's ambitions, including the reestablishment of the National Bank.

In 1844, Clay came extremely close to winning the presidency. His opponent, the Democrat James K. Polk, won 49.5% of the popular vote, and 170 of the 275 electoral votes. If Polk had lost New York, which he only won by 38,000 votes, Clay would have won the election. Defeated in three elections, Clay returned to his career as an attorney to prepare for his fifth and final presidential bid.

In 1848, an aging Clay delivered a speech criticising the Mexican-American War and the acquisition of Mexican Territory. Clay once again attempted to seek the Whig nomination, but narrowly lost to Zachary Taylor. Unlike in 1840, Clay did not campaign on behalf of the Whig nominee. 4 years later, Clay died of tuberculosis, defeated and alone.

Unit 5 Interesting Topic:
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James Buchanan

James Buchanan was the 15th President of the United States and is widely regarded by historians as the worst President in United States history. Reportedly, Buchanan aspired to be as great a president as George Washington. During his Presidency, Buchanan was accused of being responsible for the onset of the Civil War, since he failed to address the issues that caused it. Buchanan refused to use military policy to stop South Carolinian secession saw both secession and going to war to stop the secession as illegal. He was also unable to unify pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans before the war, leading to an ineffective term as president. Throughout his term, Buchanan never spoke out to defend himself from these accusations. He died in 1868 after catching a cold.

Unit 6 Interesting Topic:
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Leon Czologosz

Leon Czologosz was a Polish-American steel worker and anarchist who assassinated President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901. Czologosz was born to Paul and Mary as one of eight children in Michigan in 1873. His mother died at the age of 10, and soon after, he began working in a glass factory. At the age of seventeen, he started working for the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company. When he was twenty, the Panic of 1893 caused factories to close and reduce wages, leaving Leon without a job. After witnessing and participating in many violent strikes, he moved to Ohio, where he first heard a lecture given by the anarchist Emma Goldman. Goldman introduced Czologosz to a group of anarchists with whom he shared his frustrations about the social and economic injustice in America. Inspired by anarchist Gaetano Bresci's assassination of King Umberto I of Italy, Czologosz traveled to Buffalo, New York, and shot William McKinley twice in the abdomen at a public greeting event. Seven weeks later, Czologosz was electrocuted after the jury at his trial unanimously recommended the death penalty after only deliberating for a half hour. His last words were: "I killed the President because he was the enemy of the good people - the good working people. I am not sorry for my crime."

And Teddy became President...! Anachists killed a number of world leaders around this time. Quite an interesting event. -SW

Unit 7 Interesting Topic:
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Sierra Club

The Sierra Club is an environmental conservation organization founded by John Muir in 1892. It is typically associated with the progressive era of United States history, but it has remained active since its initial founding. Accomplishments of the Sierra Club include the establishment of Glacier National Park, preventing the damming of Dinosaur National Monument, the passage of the Endangered Species, Clean Air, and Clean Water Acts, stopping pollution of Lake Superior, and federal protection of Western Arctic Reserve lands from oil and gas drilling. Obviously, since the Sierra Club is not a government entity, it did not directly perpetrate any of these events. The influence of the Sierra Club, however, is has been prevalent in American politics and environmental conservation since the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Currently, the Sierra Club focuses on renewable energy, decreasing use of fossil fuels, and mitigating global warming.

Unit 8 Interesting Topic:
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1954 Guatemalan coup d'état

In 1954, the Central Intelligence Agency under President Dwight D. Eisenhower led a covert operation codenamed PBSUCCESS in Guatemala. This operation was part of the American policy of communist containment during the Cold War. Operation PBSUCCESS successfully overthrew the democratically elected President Jacobo Árbenz and installed Carlos Castillo Armas, the first in a series of U.S.-backed military dictatorships. It also ended the 10-year-long Guatemalan Revolution. Although the State Department justified this operation by labeling Árbenz as a communist, President Harry Truman initially planned a similar operation codenamed PBFORTUNE in 1952 after being lobbied by the United Fruit Company, a highly profitable company with major business interests in Central America. In the years following the Guatemalan coup, U.S.-backed dictators engaged in brutal practices in order to suppress democracy in the nation. This included reversal of social reforms, torture and imprisonment of political opponents, and banning opposing political parties. In 1960, Guatemala began a 36-year-long Civil War, which included a genocide of indigenous Mayans carried out by the authoritarian leadership.