Define

Navigation Acts:
The Navigation Acts were passed under the mercantilist system between 1651 - 1673. These acts regulated trade in the colonies to benefit Britain. They restricted colonial trade with countries other than Britain in some cases and made goods go through Britain before export. They also subsidized the growth of some crops within the colonies and banned colonial competition when it came to large scale manufacturing. The long and the short of it was that these acts controlled colonial trade overall to benefit and make Britain money.
-Tyler Sand P.3

Mercantilism-the belief that trade develops wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances. Chase M p4

Salutary neglect-an unofficial policy from Britain that enabled the colonists in America to trade with non-British entities as well as self govern. This allowed the colonists to make their own American identities. - Haley fonceca per. 4

Iroquois Confederacy: Five Iroquois nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and later Tuscarora joined in 1772 in upper New York which enflamed the struggle for the French and the British to take over North America. Maggie S p4

Fort Necessity: This battle in Pennsylvania at Fort Necessity in 1754 was the very beginning of the French and Indian War. Maggie S p4

Benjamin Franklin: He was a scientist most known for contributions to the American Enlightenment, discoveries in electricity such as the lightning rod, and encouraging colonial unity. Maggie S p4

Albany Plan: This was started by Benjamin Franklin which was a plan to unify the 13 colonies under one government. Maggie S p4

Gen. George Washington-The First President of the United States and the leader of the American revolution against the British. Chase M p4

William Pitt: Pitt was British statesmen who was a member of the W hig group. William Pitt was skillful and was known for bringing Britain to victory in the Seven Years War.
- Abby S P4

French and Indian War: Also known as the seven years war, this started in 1754 and was the France, French, and Native allies against Great Britain, Anglo-American colonists, and the Iroquois Confederacy. Maggie S p4

Peace of Paris (’63): This is what ended the French and Indian War in 1763 and gave Britain a ton of French territory, Spanish Florida, and gains in North America. Maggie S p4

King George III: He ruled the longest of any British monarch before him and defeated the France in the French and Indian War. Maggie S p4

Proclamation of 1763- a proclamation issued by King George the second that stated that there shall be no settlements past the line of the Appalachian Mountains. Julia Z P.3

Sugar Act of 1764: The British owed enormous debt after the French and Indian War, so they started to tax on molasses, which made smuggling extremely difficult. Maggie S p4

The Sugar Act was a tax imposed on molasses. This required merchants to pay 6 pence per gallon on foreign molasses. - Mason R p.4

Mutiny Act of 1765: Also known as the quartering acts, because the British troops had new requirements in American Colonies. Maggie S p4

The Stamp Act of 1765 made a tax on any piece of printed paper. The British Parliament imposed this in attempt to make money from the colonies. This infuriated the colonies and they urged " no taxation without representation.". - Mason R. p.4

George Grenville: He was the creator of the Stamp Act policy which later got repealed, and hurt his relations with many of the people he worked with. Maggie S p4

Stamp Act Congress: A meeting held in October of 1765 to form a response to the passage of the Stamp Act. It eventually adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to petition Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. - Aidan McIntyre p.4

The Regulators - A group of North Carolina colonists who opposed colonial taxes in the 1760s. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

British Parliament- The legislative group of politicians in Great Britain that uphold the government along side the monarchy. Shelley T. Per. 4

Sons of Liberty:
Patriot paramilitary, well organized, organization sworn to secrecy, in which was created to rebel against the British. worked "underground" with the rest of the organization. Relation to liberty tree and liberty pole - meetings were held Most likely started/created in the Summer of 1765
--- Klemme P. 4

Sam Adams: A founding father, political philosopher, and an American statesman. He helped formulate resistance to the Stamp Act and in return helped push the colonies towards the revolution. -Tyler Sand p.3

John Adams: A revolutionary leader, lawyer, statesman, and cousin of Sam Adams, who eventually became first Vice President and the second President of the United States. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

Townshend Acts: Acts passed in 1767 by British Parliament that impose duties on lead, glass, paints, paper, and tea. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
The Massachusetts Assembly petition 92 - 17 vote urged colonist not to pay the duties on the listed items. -Kai Bowne p.3

Quebec Act: The British Parliament in 1774 to institute a permanent administration in Canada to replace the temporary government created at the time of the Proclamation of 1763. Giving the French Canadians complete religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law. (Hannah C. P.3)

Tea Act of 1773: A tax on tea by the British Parliament on colonies passed in 1773, because the British East India Company was facing bankruptcy. -(Izzy J. P.3)

British East India Co.: Tea company that had monopoly that caused the Boston Tea Party, large part of Britains economy that was going broke. -Maisen S p4

Marquis of Rockingham: came after Richard Grenville as prime minister, convinced King to get rid of stamp act, tried to make both American colonists and English merchants happy -Maisen S p4

Intolerable Acts: Harsh laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 that were meant to punish the American colonies for the Boston Tea Party and other protests. These were meant to reimpose British control over the colonies but ultimately helped push the American colonists to revolt.
-Tyler Sand p.3

Thomas Gage- A British army officer who served in North America and a Military Commander in the early parts of the Revolutionary War. -Hanarose G. P4

Lord North - The prime minister of Britain during the American Revolution. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

Direct/Indirect taxes- Indirect Taxes were incorporated in the price of the product when the merchants were at the port and the merchants then sold the products to the people. Direct Tax affects people individually when they buy the product at the store and the tax is added on there. -Hanarose G.

Actual/Virtual representation: Americans were virtually represented in parliament which meant they did not get to elect their own representative and they wanted actual representation where they could elect their own representative -Maisen S p4

Thomas Hutchinson: The Loyalist governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1758 to 1774. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

Boston Massacre: when British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a group of American colonists killing five men which was an Incident of British troops on March 5th 1770. - (Carolina B. Per. 3rd)

Lexington/Concord-Where the first shot of the American Revolution was shot, the British were heading to Lexington in attempt to destroy rebels weapons/supplies -Chase M4

Paul Revere/William Dawes: known for going on the midnight ride, Revere was captured Dawes was not, they spread word of incoming British attack -Maisen S p4

Common Sense: A pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in January 1776 advocating for separation from the British Empire. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

1st Continental Cong.- A meeting in response to the Intolerable Acts which included 12 out of 13 colonies. They organized boycott, and wrote the Declaration of Rights.-(Izzy J. P.3)

2nd Continental Cong.-A meeting that involved all 13 colonies, and was a response to Lexington and Concord. They also wrote the Oliver Branch Petition, the Declaration of Independence, and the Articles of Confederation.-(Izzy J

Dec. of Independence:
The declaration of Independence was an official document adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress. This document declared that the 13 colonies are no longer associated with Great Britain. The colonies are now the 13 United States of America. Mason R.p4

John Hancock: Very wealthy patriot, smuggler who resented new acts being passed, largest signature on Declaration of Independence- Maisen S p4

Olive Branch Petition: Petition sent by colonists to try and make peace with Britain after Lexington and Concord, written in July of 1776, rejected by king -Maisen s p4

Loyalists/Tories: People loyal to Britain during the American Revolution. -Maisen S p4

Marquis de Lafayette: A French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolution on the side of the colonists. -Tyler Sand p.3

Battle of Saratoga- Battle in Stillwater New York known as the tipping point of the Revolution. Gavin P. p.4

Republican motherhood- The idea that in order for the republic to succeed, women needed to be educated in virtue so they could teach the future generation of the republic. Shelley T. Per. 4

Battle of Yorktown - The final battle of the revolution that took place at Yorktown, Virginia during the fall of 1781. General Cornwallis surrendered to the Americans after a month-long siege by combined French and American forces. - Aidan McIntyre, p.4

Lord Cornwallis: British general, fought in American revolution, surrendered in Battle of Yorktown -Maisen S p4

Treaty of Paris (‘83): A letter for the colonies to get more land and area to build and fit more people in. It was the official peace treaty between the United States and Britain that ended the American Revolutionary War. (Carolina B. Per. 3rd)