Unit 1 Vocab: Define or the Redcoats will come...

Santa Fe/Quebec/Jamestown: All of these (Santa Fe, Quebec Roanoke, and Jamestown) settlements were colonized in the year of 1607.
Jamestown was founded by the British, and more specifically: Christopher Newport, in the Chesapeake Bay, and also the heart of the Powhatan Confederacy, in modern day Virginia. The colony was characterized by distinct defensive fortifications (walls, barricades, parapets, etc), unique swampy terrain, and a natural harbor for trade. One might assume that the Jamestown colony was successful initially; however, one would be incorrect. The colony of Jamestown, initially, was plagued by disease, inefficiency, and hostilities with the natives; these all lead to insanely high death rates for the formative years. Although, with the resupplying of stock [humans] to Jamestown, the leadership of Rolfe, and Smith; Jamestown began to make a return on investment by supplying tobacco to England and quickly expanded to increase tobacco production.
Santa Fe is a settlement of Spanish origins, it was established at the foot of the Sangre de Christo Mountains in 1607 on the remains of old Pueblo ruins and originally named La Villa del la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. This colony during its formative years, fared much better than that of Jamestown and experienced natural increase [of population], yield of goods for exportation, and later would become a vital city for the Spanish Empire.
Quebec was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain and Sieur de Mons sponsored by Henry IV. It became the second permanent French settlement in the colony of Canada. Champlain quickly allied himself with the Algonquin and Montagnais natives, who were at war with the Iroquois. Champlain sealed the alliance between the French and the Algonquin, and Montagnais people by killing two Iroquois Chiefs near lake Champlain. This alliance helped Quebec prosper and flourish into a prominent trading port in North America that fared much better than both Jamestown and Santa Fe.

-Kai Bowne (Period Three)

mestizo:A person of mixed race; the child of a Spaniard and a Native American. Many were born in modern Mexico or the Southern states bordering Mexico. Mexico is considered a mestizo nation. -Tyler Sand P.3
coureurs de bois: a woodsman or trader of French origin, many found in Canada and northern US. -Izzy Juarez, P.3
Mayflower Compact: was the first agreement for a self-government to be made and listened to. 41 males on the ship signed an agreement which made it so that there was a government in Plymouth Colony. MS
Charter colony: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay made up the charter colonies.MSColonies governed by colonial charters administered by the British government that dictated the laws and rules the colony was meant to be governed under. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
Royal Colony: This colony was ruled by a governor appointed by the monarch, and the Colony of Virginia was under this name. MS
Proprietary Colony: This was a British colony in North America and the Caribbean. All land was controlled by the British ruler .MS
The Chesapeake: This was the bay where the colonists founded Jamestown and where the puritans were supposed to land. Disease was very common in this swampy area, especially malaria.MS
Sir Walter Raleigh: He was an English writer, spy, explorer, and soldier. He was most well known for making tobacco popular in England. MS
John Smith: He was an English explorer, author, and soldier who was the leader of the colonization of Jamestown. He also led explorations in Virginia and on the Chesapeake Bay- in fact he was the first person to make of map of Chesapeake. MSHe also married Pocahontas and continued to parade her around England before she promptly died. -Tyler Sand P.3
Virginia Company: This was two stock companies run by James I. This company failed in 1624 to provide resources, but they still received the opportunity to have a self governing system. MS
indentured servants: People that signed a contract to work in exchange for transportation to America. - Mason Rahimi p.4Most indentured servitude occurred in the early years of the colonies. Many died off before their term was done. This paved the way to slavery. -Tyler Sand P.3
Headright system: This was a system where (new) settlers received around 50 acres of land.( if they went over to America.) This helped obtain more settlers, which provided the labor needed for things like tobacco farming. MSPeople who paid for the passage of laborers to the New World received 50 acres of land. -Tyler Sand P.3
Sir William Berkeley: He was a colonial governor of Virginia and experimented in growing silkworms to make more tobacco. MSThe governor of Virginia who "caused" Bacon's Rebellion. - Tyler Sand P.3
Martin Luther- A German monk who later became the leader of the 16th century Protestant Reformation. He became angry at the Church and at Pope Leo X for selling indulgences in return for salvation. On October 31, 1517, he nailed a sheet of paper with his 95 Theses on the University of Wittenberg’s chapel door. He also translated the Bible so people would be able to read it. -Destiny Zarate p.3Luther also wrote an essay called On The Jews and Their Lies in which Luther advocates for the destruction of Jewish synagogues and religious texts. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
Elizabeth I/James I: English royalty who encouraged and funded colonization in America. Queen Elizabeth I sent out Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584, where settlement attempts failed. King James I gave the Virginia Co. of London a charter to start a colony in Virginia in the early 1600's which was successful. -Shelley Toussau, Per. 4
Plymouth: This is where the pilgrims landed instead of Jamestown by mistake. The story of them landing on Plymouth rock is a myth and so is the story of "God's wind taking them there." However it had a "park" atmosphere and there were only two people there when they got there. MS
William Bradford- a Puritan who went to Plymouth to seek religious freedom. He eventually became the Governor of Plymouth. -Hanarose G.
John Winthrop was the first Governor of the Massachusetts . He helped shape the colony's government and legislation while working to create the colony into what he referred to as the "city upon a hill" which he envisioned would be the center for Puritans spreading their religion through the world. - Maisen Sauer p4
Mass. Bay Co- Founded the Mass Bay colony where many puritans settled. Traded with England and West Indies. -Hanarose G.
Anne Hutchinson- a vital character in the transformation of religious freedom and women's rights. (She held meetings about the sermons discussing things that went against the Puritan beliefs which caused the church to ban her from the colony.) -Hanarose G. P.4Eventually settled in Providence or modern day Rhode Island. - Tyler Sand P.3
Roger Williams: A Puritan, an English Reformed theologian, and later a Reformed Baptist who was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the colony of Massachusetts because local officials believed that he was spreading “new and dangerous ideas” to his congregants. William then fled and founded the settlement of Providence with his followers. He is best remembered as the originator of the principle of separation of Church and State.
-Kai Bowne (Period Three)

Pequot War/King Phillip’s War
Pequot War- War fought between 1636-1637, War involved the Pequot people against a group of colonies from Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Saybrook colonies, and Native American allies (Narragansett and Mohegan). The English victory showed the Natives total war and effected policies against/with Natives from then on out.

King Phillips War- Last final war from the (South New England) Natives to drive the English Colonists out. The Pocumtuck Chief, Metacom also King Phillip, led the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck, and Narragansett Tribes to fight the English. In the End, the war was very violent and bloody. Yet ended with the English capturing Metacom (King Phillip) and beheading him.
----Klemme P.4

Pope’s Rebellion: An Indian uprising in 1680. The uprising was caused by a mission in New Mexico by the Spanish Roman Catholics to begin to oppress the Natives by attempting to derive them of their religious customs. -McCall B. Period 3

George Calvert: First to imagine a colony in America where Catholics and Protestants could live together and prosper, Was loyal to King James I, After the death of King James I, was appointed Minister of Parliament
----Klemme P.4

George Calvert, along with his father, was more commonly known as Lord Baltimore, the founder of the Catholic safe haven colony of Maryland. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
Maryland Toleration Act: An act that was passed in Maryland which guaranteed toleration to all Christians. The act did not sanction much tolerance; however, it was the start to the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all. -Izzy Juarez, P.3This act was passed because Lord Baltimore could not get enough Catholics to emigrate to Maryland. It was passed in 1649 and repealed in 1694. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
Bacon’s Rebellion- Indentured servants in Virginia revolted against the government and upperclass and burn Jamestown. - Maisen Sauer p4The immediate cause of this rebellion was due to the fact that the governor of Virginia wouldn't respond to the Indian attacks. This rebellion was led by Nathaniel Bacon. -Tyler Sand P.3
Salem Witch Trials: A series of hearings where many people were accused of practicing witchcraft. The Salem Witch Trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. - Mason Rahimi p.4Over 200 people were accused of being witches and 20 were executed. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
New Netherlands: A Dutch North American colony of the early 17th century, centered on the Hudson valley. Captured by the English in 1664, it was divided into New York and New Jersey. -Jack Vering p.3
Restoration colonies: After King Charles II regained the throne, he awarded those who aided him in his efforts with colonies. He also gave colonies to men he owed money to. These colonies included the Carolinas, New Netherland (New York), New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Georgia. -Shelley Toussau, Per. 4
Glorious Revolution- weakened the monarch with a nonviolent coup that overthrew James ll and put Mary ll and William lll in power - Maisen Sauer p4
Leisler’s Rebellion- between 1688-1689, Mobs led by Jacob Leisler, a German immigrant, to seize Fort James and command. Later William III was dispatched as governor and Leisler was convicted of treason and executed
----Klemme P.4

Dominion of New England : 1686-1689 Administrative Union of English colonies In New England Colonies
----Klemme P.4

Quakers- The Quakers are a religious society, also referred to as the Religious Society of Friends. This is a Christianity based religion founded by George Fox on the and based upon the First Epistle of Peter. It is a religion believing in peacefulness and inner light and that these principles connect you to God. Julia Zickefoose p. 3Quakers believe that each person has a personal connection through God and can receive messages that can take the form of convulsions. - Aidan McIntyre p.4
The Enlightenment- Philosophical movement during eighteenth century that used logic and reason to develop sets of ethics -Maisen Sauer p4
The Great Awakening - A protestant religious movement that swept through Protestant Europe and British America in the 1730s and 1740s. It impacted and reshaped the churches of multiple protestant denominations and left a large imprint on American Protestantism. - Aidan McIntyre, P.4
George Whitefield- Helped ignite the great awakening, spoke all around the country, kept people intrigued by memorizing sermons and using theatrics, spoke outside of churches and threatened traditional preachers - Maisen Sauer p4
Cotton Mather - A well-known and very influential minister in New England that was in strong support of the Salem Witch Trials. Though he wasn't exactly in support of the use of spectral evidence, he never completely denounced it and it's use in court. - Khai Hirschi, P.3
Harvard- An esteemed school which was originally founded back in 1636 created to train young men for the Puritan Ministry.- Hanarose G. P.4
Dutch East India Co. : The company established by the British government in 1600 to trade in the East Indies. After being driven out by the Dutch, they established trade with India until the Indian mutiny in 1857, when the Crown took over the administration. The company was disabled in 1874. --McCall B. Period 3
The Middle Passage - the part of the slave trade where Africans were transported across the Atlantic from Africa to the West Indies. The voyage took 3-4 months. -Emily Corbett p.3
Stono Rebellion- Took place in 1739, was the largest African slave revolt followed by over 250 other revolts - Maisen Sauer p4This rebellion was led by a literate slave named Jenny. Likely from the Kongo region of Africa. -Tyler Sand p.3
Zenger Trial- Took place in 1735, John Peter Zenger was arrested for writing articles in New York newspaper that hurt the governors reputation, found not guilty, help set building blocks for freedom of press that came with the 1st Amendment - Maisen Sauer p4
New France- Ran from St Lawrence river to Mississippi River valley, French colonies in America - Maisen Sauer p4
William Penn- Pennsylvania named after him, inherited fathers land and gained royal charter, created quaker colony - Maisen Sauer p4

House of Burgesses- started in Virginia in 1619, was the first legislative assembly in colonies, had 22 members representing 11 plantations, could make laws and levy taxes. -Maisen Sauer p4