Unit 9:



Unit 8:

To what extent did all Americans participate in the post war growth in America?
I get my middle name (Salvatore, Italian for savior) from my Uncle Sal. He grew up in New Brunswick New Jersey, a stinkhole of a city, until he enrolled in the University of Wisconsin Madison. The counterculture and the new left were unfolding during his education, which he took a massive part in. he participated in marches, protests, demonstartions and speeches. In the summer of his junior year, he was hired to write political speeches in Washington DC. When he returned in his senior year, he was drafted for Vietnam. Naturally, this was another opportunity for rebellion in his eyes. Sal and friends held a mass burning of their draft papers, and each fled in different directions. Knowing my Uncle Sal, it was not particularily surprising to find out that he hitchhiked to Mexico. It took his friends five years to see him again, who found him on heroin in the streets of Mexico City.
(Left: Sal & I)
(Right: Sal, Bernie [an ex Mafioso, if anyone was wondering], and my dad, from left to right)

Uncle dearest was close buddies with a rough crowd. He knew them as Dwight and Carl, APUSH knows them as the weathermen. At the time, there were leaks that the Army Math Research Center in Madison was developing or designing nuclear warheads. Dwight and Carl (the Armstrong bothers) a Leo Burt and a fourth New Leftie borrowed a small airplane of a mutual friend and dropped a homemade bomb on the building in the middle of the night. The Research facility was destroyed and one late working scientist dead. The brothers were placed on FBI's top ten most wanted for some time, and three of the four faced prizon for years. They were released in time for my mom to party with them in the 90's.

(Karlton Armstrong's Wanted poster)


Uncle Sal's wife, Megan Landauer (a feminist who did not give in to the Di Giosia surname) was a part of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). She was a bra-burning NOW regular. Megan as well demonstrated, marched and spoke out in the New Left in Wisconsin, like Sal. After protesting at the Democratic Convention of 1968, police arrested her and she spent one night in jail. Surprisingly, she did not meet my uncle until both of their activist days were over.

I have rebellion in my blood!

No wonder you're so good at APUSH! Your family lived it! Thanks for sharing Leo. What a story. -SW

Unit 7:

How Did competeing ideologies cause conflict ing the 20th century?
The effects of the Vietnam war spilled into more of Indochina than just the focus nation. Laos experienced a civil war in the fifties sixties and seventies in which Pathet Lao, a communist from North Vietnam revolted against the Royal lao government. The Ho Chi Minh trail cut into Laos, and brought in soldiers from North and South Vietnam and America in addition to the preexistng conflict. Villages in the countryside were often disturbed by the presence of all of these forces, and with time, increasingly threatened by communist forces. horrible stories exist of the Hmong people being slaughtered from military presence. Those who were not killed were recruited to join both armies. the people's situation was devastaing enough to seek refuge. Thousands of hmongs fled accross the boarder into Thailand to find saftey.
This history is relavent to me, because the city I used to live in was a large reciever of Hmong refugees. Oshkosh, Wisconsin is nearly 20% populated by Hmong families. I went to grade school and befriended many. I've heard first hand accounts of older brothers and sisters who vaguely recall the terror of the flight accross the boarder. The war is so recent that many of my friends' parents did not speak english; I found it strange that their ten year old children had to translate for them. By knowing the effects of the Communist-conflict on the local people, I've gained a more whole view of the cold war. In many cases, people in the world did not want either a democracy or a dictatorship, but rather isolation and separation from political ideas. Great personal connection Leo. I'm glad that you're able to see how these peoples' lives were directly affected by foreign events. In Unit 8, LBJ's immigration reform in 1965 changed the law to allow refugees from SE Asian countries to come in large numbers in the 1970s. Thanks for sharing. -SW
This is a picture of one of my closest friends in Oshkosh. (The dish is so much larger in person than it appears amazingly.)

Unit 6:

How did the relationship between the American people and the goernment change between 1890 and 1945 and why?

After asking my grandma about her parents in the great depression, she told me about another relative's experience. My great-great-grandfather lived in St. Paul, Minnesota in the 1930's and 40's. His name was Gus Lundquist, and served as one of the city's welfare directors. His career was probably rooted from Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, and its social insurance, welfare, and security branches. Gus Lundquist managed budgets, created sub-programs within the department, and made excecutive decissions regarding welfare distribution to the families in need. The funding and money that he dealt with came directly from the National government and the New Deal's budget. My relative is an example of the group of people that tied together FDR's programs, utilities, policies, acts, administrations, and corps with the common people, the poor, the elderly, the unemployed, the uninsured, the diseased, the starving, the mothers and the children.
Gus Lundquist's life was also affected by another aspect of American culture of the time. Each day Gus left for work, my grandma recounts, he carried a concealed shotgun. He never went without it once off his doorstep. She even remembers him showing the firearm to her when she was in High School. My great great grandfather acted this way in order to protect himself from anti-radical hostility of the time. Welfare, as the American Liberty league would probably suggest, remains on the far left. Some would argue that the program was a type of socialism, known at the time as 'radicalism'. Many conservatives in this era were especially hostile to what some defined as radical. This inluded of revolts, strikes, communism, anarchism, or socialism. This "100% Americanism" discouraged protests, like the Bouston Police strike and the Chicago Race Riots. Labor unions and organizations were frowned upon by the theory of corporations' "American Plan". The Red Scare was probably the height of the popular anti-radical sentiments that Gus Lundquist experienced. IWW members were persecuted and killed, Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were sentenced to death, and some 6,000 "radicals" were arrested in the Palmer Raids. Gus' welfare career put him in danger, because he easly could have been perceived as a radical as well. Awesome story Leo! Nice job of telling it and relating it to class. Thanks for sharing. -SW
(A photo of Gus Lunquist and his wife Juliana from 1942)

Great Depression Aspect:

I asked my grandma this weekend if she had any stories from the great depression. She hadn't been born yet, but she was able to recall some memories of what her parents had told her about their experiences. Caroline, as my family knows her, was my great grandmother. In the Great Depression, she, along with the majority of Americans became very frugal. She wasted nothing, threw nothing out. My grandma recalls her saving resources from wrapping paper and fabric from old clothes, to scraps of paper and rubber bands. They kept everything they could.
Besides retaining all material, Caroline kept one more precaution to make ends meet. She had been a lucky woman of her time to be able to get a university education. With her degree, she was able to find professional work in a food testing science labratory. In a few years' time, she met my Great Grandpa Ben. After dating for a while and deciding upon marriage, they realized that it would have to be kept a secret. During the Great Depression, single women were prioritized before married women. In no hurry to lose her career, their engagement had been kept hush-hush. The traditional joke is Caroline kept their marriage certificate tucked in a lampshade! Great story Leo! Keep that with you as you grow up. It's a precious family memory. -SW

Unit 5:

Growing up in Elementary and Middle school, a series that I particularly enjoyed to read was A series of Unfortunate Events, by Lemony Snicket. The series of thirteen books involve three orphans, constantly fleeing from their relative Count Olaf who diligently attempts to take their inheritance money. As the plot develops, it becomes more and more apparent that Count Olaf is in some sort of a gang with a close theatre troupe of 13 foul persons. The evil man eventually accumulates enough social power to turn the world against the children, insisting that they are criminals. The control that Olaf maintains over his gang, community and world is very similar to Boss Tweed's control over politics, Tammany Hall, immigrants, and authoritative decisions. In fact, many other parallels can be drawn between the stories. Although the setting remains unspecified, the style, illustrations, and technology presented in the novels suggest the orphans are living in a large city around the late nineteenth century. The most obvious connection is Olaf's and Tweed's affiliation with VFD's or Volunteer Fire Departments. Throughout the books repetitive acronyms of VFD are used, such as Very Flammable Doilies, and Vented Fuming Devices. Later, themes of volunteer fire departments appear. In boss rule, patronage, and political machines, VFDs often did much more than extinguish fires; they became social groups devoted to under the table favors, bribes, and pattings of the back. This is very similar to Count Olaf's Theater troupe, which Snicket constantly implies is an evil VFD of sorts.
By examining the proceeds of this series and learning about the raw power of boss rule and patronage, it's easy to identify to what extent Bosses controlled American people, government and politics. Olaf and Tweed had the power to reshape, realign and micromanage their community for their own benefit.
Anyway, I've always thought that these stories were a bit off the wall, but APUSH taught me how much sense and real-world application can be found in Lemony Snicket's tales.

good comment Leo, thanks.


Unit 4:

To What extent was the Civil war another war for independence?
The Civil War bears significant similarity to the American revolution in the late 1700's. Many people today will recite the causes of the civil war as a great movemement for states' rights, when in reality it was a fight for slavery. The Revolutionary war is famous for its ambition for independance, when it was majorly ignited by some sharp increases in taxation. If it were not for the uncomfortable and immoral nature of slavery, the Civil War's cause may have been more appreciated, and more in-tune to the freedom praised by Americans and endorsed by the Declaration of Independence.
However, the institution of slavery did not coincide with many of the ideals upheld by the Declaration of Independance (namely "all men are created equal and are endowed...life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"). In that respect, with the great defeat of slavery (the thirteenth ammendment) America could finally rest upon the principals it was founded on. For the century that slavery existed, America could not live up to its origins.
With this in mind, I reminded myself of a few confederate bumper stickers that somehow still seem to appear once in a while. I googled it, and found one with some particular dark humor:

Unit 3:

Did American society become more or less democratic during the Age of Jackson?
On my desk, I have a calendar. On each day, it has a laughable quote. Typically they're from George Bush or Palin, but Tuesday's was a few inspirational words of Brook Hogan:
It made me think about the reforms that happened during Jacksonian America. Hogan's argument is completely based off of the idea of social spheres; She sorts the women into a class that is not reccomended to vote, and should not hold offices of power, implying that the role is designated to the male population. If some of the women, such as Lucritia Mott, Sojourna Truth, and other Senaca Falls attendees read this, what would they think? Even with 200 years' time, it would seem as though their cherished women's suffrage and equality (mentioned in their Delcaration of Sentiments and Resolutions) they yearned for, would not become a reality. What is more shocking, is the fact it was quoted from a woman with high power in society. What would the Shakers say? They practiced an equality between genders, one that is not expressed by the "singer" in question.

Just thought it was an interesting relationship, and a really comical quote.

Unit 2:

Haha Leo! Totally love our English class refference! Did you hear that Ms. Hanson is going to jump over Ben Franklin in the lesson plans so she can focus on Thoreau first and match up with my drama class and our history class. We can blow her away in second period with knowlege that SW has inplanted in our brains! GO APUSH :] - Destiny A.
Leo, nice work here. Great connections...I love to see how other classes inform this class. BTW, where's your U1 content? -SW
accidentally deleted it, sorry SW :( - LD

To what extent was the partisan conflict during the two decades following the Revolution reslt of the writing of the U.S. Constitution?

During my AP Language class, we had to debrief the 1946 piece "Politics and the English Language" by William Orwell. In it, he breaks down how writing can go astray. It happens when the writer is not clear enough. The concepts that the writer has, are not conveyed through their writing to the audience. If a writer wants full communication, they must choose the perfectly worded statement to accurately assess their point, according to Orwell. There are two possibilities of why this inaccurate writing is used. First, the writer may not have advanced communication skills. The second reason is that writers can twist their meanings through vagueness and deception to gain the attention and approval of a reader.

This applies to the writing of the constitution. In the general and inexplicit methods of designating law, the meanings muddied. How can the Elastic clause and Amendment ten both exist? The only two times when external powers and decisions not explicitly delegated are discussed in the two sections. One states that all powers not delegated to the National government are reserved to the individual state governments. The other claims that legislature can do anything as long as they feel it "necessary and proper". This unsure definition is an example of Orwell's unclear and "bad" writing. The intentions of the author are not 100% defined to the reader. Also according to Orwell, the two culprits of such a crime are writers lacking in skill, and writers who twist their meanings. The first possibility is eliminated, so we should try to understand why the founding fathers left this issue vague. It is important to understand the process of the writing; at the convention, there was heated debate within the leaders. They fought over representation, slavery, and commerce. Compromises were established to help both sides find a reasonable conclusion. It is possible that the writers slipped these in to avoid another conflict. The federalists (at the time of the Articles of Confederation) wanted a national government and the supporters of the Articles wanted security in a state-led government

. This room for different interpretations (loose and strict) down the road would create enormous political strife between Republicans and Federalists. it is possible that the writing of the constitution was another variety of compromise to encourage ratification, like the other compromises had been.